Atmospheric aerosols are one of the main pollutants which are harmful to human health and environment. Atmospheric aerosols emitted from different sources are of different sizes and depending upon the size of the aerosol particle, it deposits in different parts of the body and cause varying health problems. Fine Particulate (PM2.5) is associated with more severe health consequences than coarse particulate (PM10) which might be short-term acute symptoms like coughing, shortness of breath, wheezing, respiratory diseases, to more serious problems like asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), bronchitis, pneumonia and long-term chronic irritation and inflammation of the respiratory tract, which may eventually result in lung cancer. Inhalation of ultrafine particles (<0.1 μm) may also contribute to cardiovascular effects due to their ability to penetrate deep into the lungs and enter the bloodstream. Exposure to traffic emissions for a long time has been linked to coronary arteriosclerosis, while short-term exposure has been linked to hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarctions, and heart failure. Prolonged exposure to carcinogenic substances such as certain heavy metals and organic compounds, particularly in industrial or heavily polluted areas, may increase the risk of lung cancer and other types of cancer. However, the risk factor depends on the exposure of different groups of the population to these aerosols. Thus, highlighting the need for continued research, monitoring, and effective air pollution control strategies are required to safeguard human health and well-being.

Keywords: Asthma, Atmospheric aerosols, Cardiovascular disease, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Fine particulate, Hypertension, Pneumonia, Respiratory diseases.

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Source of Funding:

This study did not receive any grant from funding agencies in the public or not-for-profit sectors.

Competing Interests Statement:

The authors have declared no competing interests.

Consent for Publication:

The authors declare that they consented to the publication of this study.

Authors’ Contribution:

All the authors took part in literature review, research, and manuscript writing equally.