Composting is considered to be one of the primary method for treating the wastes like organic wastes. Several technologies are being applied for the treatment of wastes. Among them, the biological treatments have been widely used as one of the most efficient and ecofriendly for the conversion of organic waste to valuable products. Various species of worms usually red wiggler’s, white worms and other earthworms are uses in this process. It is a non thermophilic process that involves microbes and earthworms. Vermicomposting also involve for the safe handling of hospital wastes otherwise it has serious harmful effects on the environment and human life. Vermicomposting also has a broad range of applications for domestic agriculture and industrial waste management. Some other applications are improvement of crop production, protection of crop production and waste water treatment.
Sharma S. Municipal solid waste management through vermicomposting employing exotic and local species of earthworms. 2003;90:169–73.
Saranraj P. Novus Natural Science Research agricultural crops. 2014; (January).
Arora M, Kaur A. and Eisenia fetida for enhancing agronomic value of paddy straw. Sci Rep [Internet]. 2019;(December 2018):1–11. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-37880-1.
Lokman M, Jusoh C, Manaf LA, Latiff PA. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms ( EM ) and its influence on compost quality. 2013;10(1):1.
Zhang Z, Shen J, Wang H, Liu M, Wu L, Ping F, et al. Attenuation of veterinary antibiotics in full-scale vermicomposting of swine manure via the housefly larvae ( Musca domestica ). 2014;1–9.
Chang M, Lee C, Hung H, Teng K, Huang H. Bioaerosols from a Food Waste Composting Plant Affect Human Airway Epithelial Cell Remodeling Genes. 2014;1(Il):337–54.
Maboeta MS, Rensburg L Van. Vermicomposting of industrially produced woodchips and sewage sludge utilizing Eisenia fetida. 2003;56:265–70.
Pereira MDG, Cardoso L, Neta DS, Paulo M, Fontes F, Souza AN, et al. An Overview of the Environmental Applicability of Vermicompost : From Wastewater Treatment to the Development of Sensitive Analytical Methods. 2014;2014.
Palma L, Ceballos SJ, Johnson PC, Niemeier D, Pitesky M, Vandergheynst JS. Cultivation of black soldier fly larvae on almond byproducts : impacts of aeration and moisture on larvae growth and composition. 2018;(July).
Garg P, Gupta A, Satya S. Vermicomposting of different types of waste using Eisenia foetida : A comparative study. 2006;97:391–5.
Faverial J, Cornet D, Paul J, Sierra J. Multivariate Analysis of the Determinants of the End-Product Quality of Manure-Based Composts and Vermicomposts Using Bayesian Network Modelling. 2016;1–16.
Cai L, Gong X, Id XS, Li S, Yu X. Comparison of chemical and microbiological changes during the aerobic composting and vermicomposting of green waste. 2018;1–16.
Goswami L, Pratiha S, Dasgupta S, Bhattacharyya P. Exploring metal detoxification and accumulation potential during vermicomposting of Tea factory coal ash : sequential extraction and fluorescence probe analysis. 2016;(July):1–13.
Coulibaly SS, Edoukou FE, Kouassi KI, Barsan N, Zoro IAB. Vermicompost utilization : A way to food security in rural area. 2018;(July).
Pathma J, Sakthivel N. Microbial diversity of vermicompost bacteria that exhibit useful agricultural traits and waste management potential. 2012;i:1–19.
Raquel M, Buendía P. Reuse of degraded Pleurotus ostreatus ( Jacq .) P . Kumm . substrate by supplementation with wheat bran . Quantitative parameters. Mycology [Internet]. 2016;7(2):53–63. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21501203.2016.1168886.
Huang J, Yu Z, Gao H, Yan X, Chang J, Wang C, et al. Chemical structures and characteristics of animal manures and composts during composting and assessment of maturity indices. 2017;1–16.
Wani KA. Bioconversion of garden waste , kitchen waste and cow dung into value-added products using earthworm Eisenia fetida. Saudi J Biol Sci [Internet]. 2013;20(2):149–54. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2013.01.001.
Amooaghaie R, Golmohammadi S. Effect of Vermicompost on Growth , Essential Oil , and Health of Thymus Vulgaris. 2017;2397. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1080/1065657X.2016.1249314.
Ahmad S, Jaswinder B, Adarsh S, Vig P. Earthworms as Organic Waste Managers and Biofertilizer Producers. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 2018;9(7):1073–86.
Ahmad S, Singh S, Singh J, Kumar S. Bioresource Technology Bioremediation and detoxi fi cation of industrial wastes by earthworms : Vermicompost as powerful crop nutrient in sustainable agriculture. Bioresour Technol [Internet]. 2018;252(January):172–9. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.01.003.
Chia SY, Tanga CM, Osuga IM, Mohamed SA, Khamis FM, Salifu D, et al. Effects of waste stream combinations from brewing industry on performance of Black Soldier Fly , Hermetia illucens ( Diptera : Stratiomyidae ). 2018;1–26.
Odongo NE, Bagg R, Vessie G, Dick P, Hook SE, Gray JT, et al. Long-Term Effects of Feeding Monensin on Methane Production in Lactating Dairy Cows. J Dairy Sci [Internet]. 2007;90(4):1781–8. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-708.
Tapiwa L, Nyari P, Mnkeni S. Vermicomposting manure- paper mixture with igneous rock phosphate enhances biodegradation , phosphorus bioavailability and reduces heavy metal concentrations. Heliyon [Internet]. 2018;(March):e00749. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00749.
Descloux C, Ginet V, Clarke PGH, Puyal J, Truttmann AC. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience Neuronal death after perinatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia : Focus on autophagy — mediated cell death. Int J Dev Neurosci [Internet]. 2015;45:75–85. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2015.06.008.
Goswami L, Nath A, Sutradhar S, Sundar S, Kalamdhad A, Vellingiri K, et al. Application of drum compost and vermicompost to improve soil health , growth , and yield parameters for tomato and cabbage plants. J Environ Manage [Internet]. 2017;200:243–52. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.05.073.
Suthar S, Bishnoi P, Singh S, Mutiyar PK, Nema AK, Patil NS. Nitrate contamination in groundwater of some rural areas of Rajasthan , India. 2009;171:189–99.
Zhao L, Wang Y, Yang J, Xing M, Li X, Yi D, et al. Earthworm – microorganism interactions : A strategy to stabilize domestic wastewater sludge. Water Res [Internet]. 2010;44(8):2572–82. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2010.01.011.
Hendrickx TLG, Temmink H, Elissen HJH, Buisman CJN. The effect of operating conditions on aquatic worms eating waste sludge. Water Res [Internet]. 2009;43(4):943–50. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2008.11.034.
Rulkens W. Sewage Sludge as a Biomass Resource for the Production of Energy : Overview and Assessment of the Various Options †. 2008;44(1):9–15.
Nurmesniemi H, Po R. A case study of waste management at the Northern Finnish pulp and paper mill complex of Stora Enso Veitsiluoto Mills. 2007;27:1939–48.
Negi R, Suthar S. Degradation of paper mill wastewater sludge and cow dung by brown-rot fungi Oligoporus placenta and earthworm ( Eisenia fetida ) during vermicomposting. J Clean Prod [Internet]. 2018;201:842–52. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.08.068.
Aira M, Domínguez J. Earthworms strongly modify microbial biomass and activity triggering enzymatic activities during vermicomposting independently of the application rates of pig slurry. 2007;385:252–61.
Garg AYVK. Industrial wastes and sludges management by vermicomposting. 2011;243–76.
Soobhany N, Gunasee S, Pooja Y, Joyram H, Raghoo P. Bioresource Technology Spectroscopic , thermogravimetric and structural characterization analyses for comparing Municipal Solid Waste composts and vermicomposts stability and maturity. Bioresour Technol [Internet]. 2017;236:11–9. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.03.161.
Ndegwa PM, Thompson SA. Integrating composting and vermicomposting in the treatment and bioconversion of biosolids. 2001;76.