Middle East Journal of Applied Science & Technology

Volume 6 Issue 3 July-September 2023

Review Article

Atmospheric Aerosols and their Effect on Human Health: A Review

Shalini V., Gavisiddappa Gadag & Prathiba V Kalburgi

Page No. 01-10

 Abstract: Atmospheric aerosols are one of the main pollutants which are harmful to human health and environment. Atmospheric aerosols emitted from different sources are of different sizes and depending upon the size of the aerosol particle, it deposits in different parts of the body and cause varying health problems. Fine Particulate (PM2.5) is associated with more severe health consequences than coarse particulate (PM10) which might be short-term acute symptoms like coughing, shortness of breath, wheezing, respiratory diseases, to more serious problems like asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), bronchitis, pneumonia and long-term chronic irritation and inflammation of the respiratory tract, which may eventually result in lung cancer. Inhalation of ultrafine particles (<0.1 μm) may also contribute to cardiovascular effects due to their ability to penetrate deep into the lungs and enter the bloodstream. Exposure to traffic emissions for a long time has been linked to coronary arteriosclerosis, while short-term exposure has been linked to hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarctions, and heart failure. Prolonged exposure to carcinogenic substances such as certain heavy metals and organic compounds, particularly in industrial or heavily polluted areas, may increase the risk of lung cancer and other types of cancer. However, the risk factor depends on the exposure of different groups of the population to these aerosols. Thus, highlighting the need for continued research, monitoring, and effective air pollution control strategies are required to safeguard human health and well-being.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2023.6301

Research Article

The Knowledge and Attitude Towards Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

Sajad Ahmad Malik, Shugufta Shakeel & Aabid Ahmad Khanday

Page No. 11-18

 Abstract: Between 08/01/2023 to 12/04/2023, Two Hundred Twenty samples (male and female) of any age were drawn from District Hospital Pampore. Only 13 clinical samples out of the 220 that were analysed were found to be HIV-1/HIV-2 positive (9 HIV-1 samples and 3 HIV-2 samples). One of the most totally global diseases has always been HIV/AIDS. The lent virus known as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is what causes AIDS and HIV infection. In the human disease known as AIDS, the immune system gradually fails, allowing tumours and infections that can be fatal to spread. HIV can be transmitted through the exchange of blood, semen, vaginal fluid, and breast milk. Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells. HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system such as helper CD4 T cells, macrophages.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2023.6302

Review Article

A Systemic Review of Lumpy Skin Disease Virus (LSDV) And its Emergence in Pakistan

Hamid Muzmmal Khan, Hassaan Bin Sajid, Abdul Manan, Muhammad Hamza Awan, Imtiaz Hussain & Muhammad Asif Raheem

Page No. 19-30

 Abstract: Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an infectious disease caused by the virus lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). The family of LSDV is Poxiviridae and the genus Capripoxvirus (CaPV). The GTPV (goat pox virus) and SPPV (sheep pox virus) also belong to the same genus. LSDV causes disease in livestock animals except for dogs. LSDV causes vast economic losses in the country in the livestock industry and dairy industries. LSDV also affects the industries belonging to these industries like the leather industry. The sequence of 21 strains of LSDV were taken from NCBI database and their fasta files were retrieved. After that, phylogenetic analysis was performed using these sequences. This study provides an overall overview of the lumpy skin disease (LSD) its genome, causative agent, transmission, epidemic, molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis, control, and treatment of the LSDV. We also give a short review of the emergence of LSD in Pakistan.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2023.6303

Case Study

Environment and Other Problems in Construction Sector - Case of Vietnam Industrial Zones

Nguyen Xuan Hai, Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy, MBA, Le Ngoc Nuong, PhD & Nguyen Dinh Trung, PhD

Page No. 31-36

 Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to address ENVIRONMENT AND OTHER PROBLEMS IN CONSTRUCTION SECTOR - CASE OF VIETNAM INDUSTRIAL ZONES. In this paper, we suggest that Vietnam cities should have policies to encourage and give priority support to production and business establishments that apply clean and environmentally friendly technologies such as gas technology instead of coal technology, firewood in ceramic production, and charcoal production. Bees make use of the residues of buckwheat. High technology is a progressive and inevitable trend to solve environmental pollution in craft villages and industrial zones.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2023.6304

Research Article

Counseling and Academic Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Rangwe Sub County of Homa Bay County, Kenya

William Kawaka, Dr. Joel Kiambi Muriithi & Dr. Maria Ntarangwe

Page No. 37-63

 Abstract: The study sought to ascertain the impact of counseling on the academic performance of Rangwe Sub-County students. The four objectives of this study were as follows: the role of counselors in promoting academic performance in public secondary schools, students' attitudes toward counseling in public secondary schools, the challenges facing counseling in public secondary schools, and the factors influencing students' academic performance in public secondary schools. Social learning and person-centered theory underpin this. The study's participants were 25,000 students from 21 secondary schools in the Rangwe Sub-County of Homa Bay County. The researcher intends to target all students as well as 21 teacher counselors. The sample size used was 394 people. The participants were chosen using simple random sampling. Participants were given questionnaires. To analyze quantitative data, descriptive and inferential statistics are used. The data was presented in the form of frequency graphs and verbatim responses. A pilot study was carried out to validate the instruments' veracity and dependability. Frequency means and percentages were used to analyze qualitative data. Tables with explanations were used to present the findings. The data was analyzed using (SPSS) version 21 by the researcher. The study established that counseling services in school enable students to share the problems they go through for psycho-social support and this helps in promoting their performance hence leading to good performance in public secondary schools. The study performed a correlation coefficient test to quantify the strength of the linear relationship between two study variables. Counseling services had the highest positive correlation with schools’ academic performance (r= 0.512), the attitude of students towards counseling had the highest positive correlation with schools’ academic performance (r= 0.361), challenges facing counseling had a positive correlation with schools’ academic performance (r= 0.387), and other factors affecting counseling sessions had the lowest but positive correlation with schools’ academic performance (r=0.341). The study findings revealed that counseling services, the attitude of students towards counseling, challenges facing counseling, and other factors affecting counseling sessions correlate with school performance up to 45.9% (R=0.459) and account for a variation of 21.1% (R2=0.211). From the findings, this study recommends that to promote the behavior of students in seeking counseling services, there is a need for the schools to create awareness across the schools. Teachers should work towards building a good teacher-student relationship. This can help students to always open up and seek counseling services, School administration ought to work closely with the counseling teachers as well as students to identify and address all possible challenges that most cases hinder students from seeking counseling services while in school.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2023.6305

Review Article

Urban Housing Dynamics and Health Hazards: An Overview

Janak P Joshi & Bindu Bhatt

Page No. 64-71

 Abstract: Urban housing dynamics play a crucial role in determining the health hazards faced by urban populations. A range of factors including the quality of housing, access to basic amenities, urban planning, and the presence of environmental hazards can all impact the health of residents. Although the association between the built environment and health is not easy, the effect of buildings on health, particularly housing, has been acknowledged for over a century. The interaction between health and housing has remained comparatively overlooked by researchers and policy makers, but currently nations and world leaders are looking for ways to improve health and wellbeing of their citizens. The multidimensional and complex determinants of health span both the social, economic, psychosocial space, and the physical environments. The effects of the built environment on health can be direct, for example, by influencing environmental quality, or indirect, by influencing behaviors that impact disease diffusion and health. Hence, we try to explore the different types of health and wellbeing risks in the urban environment. A brief literature based article provides an overview of the ways in which the urban built environment can affect human health, portrays how health hazards in housing are associated and apprehension for the health-housing link.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2023.6306

Research Article

Assessment of Language Barriers Among Nursing Students for Effective Communication

Azra Mahmood, Sana Majeed, Firdous Begum & Noreen Aslam

Page No. 72-81

 Abstract: Background: Language is a key barrier to effective communication among nursing students. Nursing students belongs to different cultural background so it is difficult for them to express their ideas and meanings in the same language. Aim: To assess the language barriers among nursing students for effective communication. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. A convenient sample of 100 nursing students enrolled from a College of Nursing Rawalpindi. The study was carried out from January 2023 to March 2023. A self-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from each participant. Informed written consent was obtained from all the selected participants. Participants were requested to respond on the basis of their own opinions and understanding to each question. Results: The mean age of the students is b/w 15-29 years. All of the students were females and all students were unmarried. The study finding identified that language is a key barrier for them; some nursing students conceived it as strong barrier for communication and some of them as moderate level barrier for their learning process. The mean and S.D. of every question is analysed and displayed. Practical Implication: Nurses may improve the delivery of effective care to patients impacted by language barriers by gaining a better knowledge of these limitations and developing appropriate methods to overcome them. The study's findings are relevant since language barriers have an impact on healthcare delivery wherever. Conclusion: Successful orientation of students to the language used in the teaching environment will help the students overcome the communication barriers they encounter during their training and practices.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2023.6307

Research Article

Effect of adding surfactant additives (sodium lauryl sulphate) in water on the performance of flat plate solar distillation system for the purification of water

Noor Zulfiqar

Page No. 82-91

 Abstract: Access to clean and safe drinking water is a fundamental human need, yet escalating land pollution has led to a decline in water purity, posing a significant health risk. In response to this pressing issue, this research introduces and evaluates a Flat Plate Solar Water Distillation System (FPSWD) as a cost-effective and environmentally sustainable method for water purification, particularly in remote and resource-scarce areas. The study explores the critical factors influencing water pollution reduction and purification techniques, focusing on the FPSWD's potential to provide high- quality drinking water while minimizing energy consumption and utilizing affordable materials. This study showcases the system's practicality in delivering both drinking and hot water, making it well-suited for households and small communities in regions with limited access to clean water resources. By leveraging abundant solar energy, the FPSWD presents a promising solution to address the global challenge of ensuring clean and safe drinking water for all while mitigating the detrimental effects of land pollution.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2023.6308

Research Article

The Problem in the Production of Advanced Developmental Vegetable Oil

Abduladhim Moamer M Albegar

Page No. 92-101

 Abstract: The inspiration for the paper problem comes down to the search for the most simple and effective System “SMO” of supporting decisions in the selection of the technical and economic levels of a new natural oil to obtain different edible oils of high qualities levels by assessing the state of the current level of oils in the market with the possibility of choosing different level of qualities, i.e. the possibility of choosing different basic and economic parameters based on the preferences of the consumers and to be controlled in the current conditions of the free market economy. Main components of the SMO system act as five elements linking together. The main elements of this system as a one set formally are treated as a certain mechanical system, serving as the actions of empirical experiments with SMO for the purpose of the evaluation the level of development of the mixtures with the help of so-called Computerized FAM System - CAF, that is a tool in action to help the decision maker to assess the level of development of the mixtures as it is in the project plan for evaluation and to choose a New Oil.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2023.6309

Research Article

Brain Tumors Classification Using Convolutional Neural Networks

K. Vigneshwari & Pavithra R.

Page No. 102-117

 Abstract: The aim of this study is to the most prevalent and dangerous disease, brain tumors, which have very low life expectancies in their most advanced stages. Therefore, treatment planning is an essential stage in improving patients' quality of life. Several imaging techniques, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound images, are frequently used to evaluate the tumor in a brain. In order to generate probability maps of tumor presence in brain images, the suggested method first conducts brain tumor segmentation using a modified Dense-Net architecture that includes skip connections and a softmax layer. The retrieved features from the brain scans are then used to classify them into those with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or normal brain function using a completely connected layer and softmax activation function. the split-up images. Brain tumor segmentation and classification are significant issues in medical image analysis that can aid in the detection and treatment of brain tumors. These results show that the proposed technique for extracting Dense-Net features, which is then fed into a CNN for segmentation and classification and disease detection, may improve the efficacy and precision of medical diagnosis and therapy and may provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative illness. The findings of the experiments show that the suggested method for classifying and segmenting brain tumors is effective. The proposed deep learning model was compared to transfer learning methods already in use on the same MRI dataset, and while classification results improved, processing times were reduced by using Dense-Net features and CNN architecture to generate accurate segmentation and classification results. This method has the potential to be used in clinical situations for the detection and treatment of tumors in the brain.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2023.6310

Research Article

Vector bionomics of Culex species in possible Japanese Encephalitis transmitted areas of Wakema Township, Ayeyawady Region in Myanmar

Maung Maung Mya, Sein Thaung, Nye Ye Ye Linn, Than Tun, Khin Thet Wai & Zaw Than Htun

Page No. 118-136

 Abstract: Japanese encephalitic (JE) is a public health problem in many part of Myanmar. The disease was transmitted to human by the bite of vector Culex mosquitoes. The study was conducted in Moe-Kaung, Pake-Tar-Gyi, Au-Kyun and Yay-Lein villages in Wakema Township, Ayeyawady Region and in Pake-Tar-Gyi where JE cases were reported. Fifty houses each was randomly selected from each village near with the pig farm. Mosquitoes were collected in all selected houses and pig farms using WHO sucking tubes. Result found that JE main vector Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was abundantly collected in all study areas. The JE vector density (54.14%) was highest than other species in Wakema Township. The highest number of JE vector was found n=529 in Moe Kaung village followed by n=512 in Pake Tar Gyi and peak biting time was found at 10-11pm. Suspected vector Cx. vishnui was abundantly found in Pake Tar Gyi and Au Kyun villages than others. Very low number of Cx. gelitus was collected only in Au Kyun. Filarial vector Cx. quinquefasciatus was highest number in Pake Tar Gyi village n=83 followed by in Moe Kaung village n=75. Only three species of Anopheles mosquitoes were collected in Moe Kaung and Pake Tar Gyi villages, An. hyrcanus was collected in all villages, highest in Yay-Lein village. Culex tritaeniorhynchus larvae were abundantly found in rice field water and polluted water pools and stagnant water pools near or under the thatch plants. Highest density of main vector and suspected vectors were found in JE transmitted areas. Pig are main host of JE virus, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus adult and larvae were abundantly collected in polluted water sources in all selected villages and JE cases are available in Pake Tar Gyi village. Therefore, Modified agriculture practices, pig vaccination, rigorous monitoring, vector control, and improved living standards can reduce morbidity of JE cases. This study provides further information on risk of JE transmission in study areas. Environmental and ecological factors are responsible for the spread of JE virus. Therefore, VBDC need to distribute LLINs nets and health education to all family members to prevent JE transmission in villages.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2023.6311