Middle East Journal of Applied Science & Technology

Volume 7 Issue 2 April-June 2024

Current Issue


Commentary

Striking a Balance: Navigating Ethical Complexity in Healthcare: A reply to Mandal, Jharna; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol; Parija, Subhash Chandra

Zaira Fatima & Azra Mahmood

Page No. 01-03

 Abstract: Background: Medical ethics is a rational area of moral philosophy that addresses probable outcomes and disputes in duties and obligations. There are two schools of ethics that focus on decision-making: utilitarian and deontological. While in the utilitarian method, outcomes define the means and most benefit expected for the greatest number of people, in the deontological approach, outcomes/consequences may not only justify the means to attain them. In this paper we explore the idea of striking a balance proposed by Mandal J., et al (2016) between two very strong and conflicting ethical approaches (deontological & utilitarian) viewpoints while making ethical decisions in the healthcare industry and focusing on real-world implementation challenges of these ethical approaches. We argue about the practical implication of “balance” as well as the limitations of “Dual processing theory of moral judgment”. Objectives: The objectives of this commentary are to critically analyze the concept of balance between utilitarian and deontological perspectives in ethical decision-making within healthcare and to highlight the challenges it poses in practical implementation. Conclusions: In conclusion, it is emphasized that striking a balance in healthcare ethics is important yet difficult, necessitating a dedication to compassion and honesty as well as a sophisticated grasp of ethical reasoning. In order to provide patient care that is both ethically sound and patient-centered, healthcare practitioners work to integrate utilitarian and deontological principles while taking into account a variety of contextual elements.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2024.7201


Research Article

Preparation and Evaluation of Diclofenac Sodium Loaded Liposomal Hydrogel in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Shivam Tayal, Asifa Siddiqui, Md Mannan Ansari & Bidyalakshmi Phurailatpam

Page No. 04-15

 Abstract: In the present research, it was proposed to provide topical delivery of diclofenac sodium. Diclofenac sodium will be encapsulate in liposome and further loaded into a hydrogel and delivered through topical route. The lipid film hydration approach was used to create diclofenac sodium liposomes, which were then characterised by vesicle size, zeta potential, and entrapment effectiveness. The pH of the generated liposomal gels was within the permissible range of 7.0-7.2. The spreadability of the gels was assessed using slip and drag characteristics and was found to be between 10.45 and 12.32 gm.cm/sec. F1, F2, and F3 spreadabilities were determined to be 10.45±0.075,12.32±0.042 and 11.75±0.049 gm.cm/sec, respectively. The viscosities for F1, F2, and F3 were determined to be 1870±25 cps, 1895±33 cps, and 1875±21 cps, respectively. The percentage of cumulative medication (diclofenac sodium) released from F1, F2, and F3 liposomal gel formulations was 98.15%±17, 98.72%±2.4 and 96.27%±2.7 respectively.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2024.7202


Research Article

Assessing the Prevalence of Elbow Pain in Salon Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Johar Town, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan

Nazia Kanwal, Nimra Hanif, Muzamal Hussain, Muhammad Imran Afzal, Sahil Ihsan Cheema, Muhammad Asif Raheem & Ommah Afzal Awan

Page No. 16-24

 Abstract: Elbow pain (EP) is a major health risk among salon workers. Salon workers confront a more significant number of occupational issues. Due to the overuse of muscles, work-related EP is common in occupational workers, especially salon workers. This study aims to raise public awareness about issues such as EP caused by overuse of elbow muscles, protect workers from dangerous health concerns, and determine the prevalence of EP in salon workers of Lahore. A cross-sectional study design was used to conduct this study in Lahore. The study population included male and female salon workers aged 18 to 45 years. Non-probability purposive sampling was used. A sample size of 78 female and 76 male salon workers was calculated. Patient Elbow Questionnaire and visual analogue scale were used in this study. Data was collected from different areas of Johar town, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. Data was analysed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) Version 21 for Windows 10. The prevalence of EP in salon workers of Lahore was 71.4%. Out of 154 workers, (28.6%) workers have no pain. Most of the workers have mild pain, which is (37.0%); workers with (32.0%) have moderate pain, and only (1.9%) have severe pain. There was a high prevalence (71.4%) of EP in salon workers., 50.6% in females and 49.3% in males. The average intensity of pain was moderate.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2024.7203


Research Article

Relationship between Human Body Weight and Specific Gravity of Urine

Muhammad Hammad Ahmad, Muhammad Imran Qadir, Hafiz Shahid Hussain & Asifa Sadaf

Page No. 25-32

 Abstract: The objective of this study was to compare the relationship between human body weight and specific gravity of urine. Urinalysis test is not a painful procedure and it is used to analyze the abnormalities. The comparison between urine density and water density is done by the help of urine specific gravity. The condition of diabetes insipidus can be reported during concentrated urine causes the thirst and removal of excess amounts of dilute urine. Fresh sample of urine was collected in a container and immediately a dipstick method was applied for a few seconds the stick was dipped to check the color change. Statistical analysis was done by applying the rules of M-Stat by using t-Test for getting results. This project is a questionnaire based study about the specific gravity of urine of patients. Urine samples of the patients were collected and then measured the weight of the patients. Results obtained that there was not any relationship between human body weight and specific gravity of urine. It was concluded that there was no significant relationship observed between human body weight and specific gravity of urine.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2024.7204


Research Article

The IAI Robot Control System in Researching Phone Speaker Production Lines

Nguyen Thi Phuong Thanh, Master

Page No. 33-41

 Abstract: This article presents research on the IAI Robot control system in a phone speaker production line being operated in Vietnam. In assembly and handling technology, electric actuators are used for linear, rotary, or clamping movements. Single-axis IAI robots become flexible when paired together. IAI robots (Intelligent Actuators) meet significantly high requirements in terms of payload, speed, and travel length. The IAI Robot's control program is programmed on Keyence PLC and uses expansion modules to ensure the IAI Robot's stable operation, high accuracy, and fast processing speed. The results of research, construction, and direct experiments at the factory show that the system operates stably with high accuracy.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2024.7205


Research Article

Assessing the feasibility of backward design approach in Mauritian Public Universities

N. K. Betchoo

Page No. 42-54

 Abstract: The backward design approach is a new course development technique being implemented in Mauritius among public Mauritian universities. The main objective is to ensure effective blended learning to Mauritian students based on Moodle learning platform. Backward learning enabled the setting of course aims aligned with students’ needs and then working back to developing learning outcomes created from Open Educational Resources (OERs). The training was provided to forty staff from the four public Mauritian universities. For the research evaluation, the qualitative method was used through feedback responses from all 40 participants in the training. The key results found were that the backward design concept was well grasped by the participants during the training including its benefits for teaching. Immersive learning was a fundamental attribute of such a technique. The training considerations like empowerment and engagement were prioritised. Participants also addressed challenges namely design, application and time linked with this teaching and learning approach. In a nutshell, backward design could be envisaged in Mauritius with regards to new programmes of study having more practical than academic weighting. It might be applied to project-based assessments and innovative courses which might lack proper learning materials but might depend on OERs.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2024.7206


Commentary

Commentary on the article “Nursing and midwifery students’ attitudes towards principles of medical ethics in Kermanshah, Iran”

Sana Liaqat, Sumaya Bibi, Rukhsana Kouser, Shagufta Parveen, Aqeela Jabeen & Asma Gul

Page No. 55-58

 Abstract: This study explores ethical attitudes among unmarried female students. Despite cultural and societal pressures, the study reveals positive attitudes toward medical ethics principles, highlighting the need for ongoing ethical education in healthcare. The authors address ethical dilemmas inherent in the research, emphasizing the importance of informed consent, confidentiality, and cultural sensitivity. They employ a socio-cultural theoretical perspective to contextualize findings within Iran's cultural framework, emphasizing the significance of understanding contextual factors in ethical decision-making. While the study employs a validated questionnaire, limitations include its scope and cultural sensitivity. Overall, the study underscores the importance of fostering an ethical culture in healthcare education and practice to uphold public confidence and maintain high standards of care.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2024.7207


Research Article

Advancements in Portable Deuterium Reactor Systems: A Multifaceted Scientific Investigation

Stefano Turini, Guido Palchetti & Antonino Fischetti

Page No. 59-92

 Abstract: Deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen, holds significant promise across a spectrum of scientific and industrial domains, particularly within the realms of nuclear technology, chemistry, and pharmaceuticals. This comprehensive review explores the multifaceted applications and implications of deuterium utilization, spanning from its role in nuclear fusion reactors to its incorporation into organic molecules for medicinal purposes. In the field of nuclear fusion, deuterium serves as a primary fuel source, offering the potential for clean, sustainable energy production through controlled fusion reactions. Detailed experimental studies have revealed the efficacy of electrolysis-based methods for deuterium enrichment, leading to substantial increases in deuterium concentration within water and organic solvents. Moreover, novel approaches such as laser stimulation have been investigated to enhance the efficiency of deuterium extraction and fusion processes. Beyond nuclear fusion, deuterium finds extensive use in organic chemistry, where isotopic labeling techniques enable the synthesis of deuterated compounds with altered chemical and pharmacokinetic properties. This includes the production of deuterated polyunsaturated fatty acids (D-PUFAs), offering new avenues for drug development and metabolic research. Economically, the commercialization of deuterium-based technologies presents lucrative opportunities for industries involved in energy production, pharmaceuticals, and materials science. The increasing demand for deuterated compounds underscores the importance of efficient and sustainable methods for deuterium extraction and enrichment. Looking ahead, ongoing research endeavors aim to further optimize deuterium-related processes, enhance fusion reactor efficiency, and explore novel applications in fields such as isotope geochemistry and environmental remediation. However, challenges remain, including the scalability of deuterium production, regulatory hurdles, and geopolitical considerations surrounding deuterium-rich regions. In conclusion, the comprehensive examination of deuterium's diverse applications underscores its pivotal role in advancing scientific understanding and technological innovation. By harnessing its unique properties, researchers and industries alike stand poised to unlock new frontiers in energy, medicine, and beyond.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2024.7208


Research Article

Trust and Buying Intent on Social Media Platforms in Vietnam

Dr. Nguyen Thanh Hai & Master Nguyen Thuy Duong

Page No. 93-107

 Abstract: Social networking platforms have been developing more and more features in connection and sharing between users, thereby speedily communication activities, promoting and trading goods and services. One of the social networks that has achieved outstanding growth in recent years is Tiktok Shop. Although users can shop easily on this application, they still have certain doubts, stemming from the risks encountered. Trust is considered an essential factor to reduce customer uncertainty and risk when shopping online. This article aims to examine the influence of perceived values on trust and online purchase intention of Vietnamese users on the Tiktok. With the research assumption that factors such as media richness, price fairness, convenience, and seller interaction have an impact on trust, and trust impacts purchase intention on the Tiktok, the study conducted a survey with 506 consumers in Hanoi with a questionnaire adapted from previous research. The results obtained demonstrate that most of these factors affect trust, and trust has a positive impact on users' purchasing intention. From there, the article recommends some management implications for businesses on social networks in general and Tiktok in particular.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2024.7209


Review Article

Uses and mechanism of action of main ingredients in sunscreen products

Tan Van Hau

Page No. 108-116

 Abstract: Today, with the strong development of industrialization and modernization, countries around the world are suffering the severe consequences of climate change, global warming, etc. Our atmosphere are strongly impacted, causing thinning, tearing, and puncture of the ozone layer, causing ultraviolet rays to directly impact human skin. In the modern age, the importance of protecting the skin from the effects of UV rays from the sun has become more important than ever. Increased exposure to sunlight, along with depletion of the ozone layer, has increased the risk of skin-related problems, including skin cancer and premature aging. Sunscreen is not only an important tool to protect the skin from the harmful effects of UV rays, but also helps the skin become smoother and healthier. However, the sunscreen market is increasingly diverse with a variety of products and formulations, and choosing a suitable product is not always easy. Understanding the role and importance of sunscreen to human skin and health, this article presents the uses and mechanisms of action of the ingredients in sunscreen.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2024.7210


Commentary

Finding Equilibrium in the Ethical Landscape of Medicine: A Response to Philip Reed and Joseph Caruana

Sadia Sana, Rahila Shafiq, Tanveer Kausar, Dr. Muhammad Sajeel Ur Rehman, Dr. Adeela Bashir & Shagufta Parveen

Page No. 117-120

 Abstract: Background: In the era of increased patient autonomy, clinicians face pressure to conform to all patient desires. They argue they are caring individuals with a stake in their patient's lives, and their rights of conscience should be respected and protected by law (Sullivan, 2019). The conflict between beneficence and autonomy in the delivery of healthcare can take many different forms, such as treatment refusal or decision-making regarding one's death. Healthcare professionals have a dual responsibility to respect patients' autonomy and give priority to measures that advance their overall health. This commentary explores the subtleties of the moral dilemma in further detail, looking at how it affects cross-cultural settings, medical education, and healthcare delivery. Objectives: To Investigate the relationship between patient autonomy and medical beneficence to learn how healthcare personnel can better handle moral dilemmas in medicine and explores the complexities of ethical decision-making in global health, emphasizing the importance of striking a balance between beneficence and autonomy while respecting cultural differences. Conclusion: By adopting a comprehensive perspective of autonomy and beneficence, healthcare workers can traverse ethical quandaries with compassion, honesty, and cultural humility. Through interdisciplinary collaboration, ongoing education, and a commitment to patient-centered care, the ethical imperatives of autonomy and beneficence can be harmoniously integrated into the fabric of medical practice, ensuring optimal patient outcomes and upholding ethical integrity principles.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2024.7211


Conceptual Analysis

Teacher Competency: An In-depth Concept Analysis with Walker & Avant's Framework

Sadia Sana, Dr. Muhammad Sajeel Ur Rehman, Muhammad Ishtiaq, Shahida Anwar, Shagufta Parveen & Samrah Nilum

Page No. 121-128

 Abstract: Introduction: The skills and knowledge that help teachers succeed academically are known as “teacher competencies”. To refine, explore, and upgrade their teaching methods, teachers must increase their skill and knowledge. Research on teachers' competences usually concentrate more emphasis on instructors' responsibilities in the classroom than on their competencies (Selvi & Peter Lang, 2010). Methodology: Walker & Avant model is being used for the concept analysis of “Teacher Competency”. This model was introduced in 1986. It is the most commonly used methodology in nursing as it is easy for graduates to understand and describe the processes in depth. Concept analysis, concept synthesis, and concept derivation are the three different processes that were described by Walker & Avant in 2011 (Mc Ewen & Wills, 2014). Results: This conceptual analysis can serve as a valuable reference for educational institution administrators, evaluators, teachers, and curriculum designers. It emphasizes the critical components of teacher competency, which can help with focused professional development and curriculum refinement, ultimately boosting educational quality and effectiveness. Conclusion: The concept analysis presented offers a broad theoretical comprehension regarding the nature of teacher competency, including its goals, characteristics, components, and developmental process. With the growing significance of nurse educator competency-based training, as highlighted by major medical education institutions in recent years, it has become apparent that curriculum modification and design are necessary.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2024.7212