Middle East Journal of Applied Science & Technology

Volume 2 Issue 4 October - December 2019

Review Article

Importance of Vermicomposting at Industrial and Domestic Level

Muhammad Arif Saleem, Muhammad Umar Farooq, Shahbaz Anwar, Muhammad Moin Akhtar, Rehana & Muhammad Fakhar Iqbal Fareedi

Abstract: Composting is considered to be one of the primary method for treating the wastes like organic wastes. Several technologies are being applied for the treatment of wastes. Among them, the biological treatments have been widely used as one of the most efficient and ecofriendly for the conversion of organic waste to valuable products. Various species of worms usually red wiggler’s, white worms and other earthworms are uses in this process. It is a non thermophilic process that involves microbes and earthworms. Vermicomposting also involve for the safe handling of hospital wastes otherwise it has serious harmful effects on the environment and human life. Vermicomposting also has a broad range of applications for domestic agriculture and industrial waste management. Some other applications are improvement of crop production, protection of crop production and waste water treatment.

Research Article

Does the Presence of Leukocytes in Urine Effect the Choice of Liking Salty Food or Sweet Food?

Muhammad Imran Qadir, Fatima Hameed & Sajal Riaz

Abstract: The sum of 100 subjects was involved in this fresh survey and all were studying at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Pakistan at that time. Leukocytes, also named as white blood cells, which are the central part of the immune system. Leukocytes may appear in urine due to any damage or infection to kidneys, urethra, ureter or bladder. People have their own taste of interest in food. Some people may like salty food more than sugary and some people feel more comfortable in eating sugary food. A questionnaire base form was produced to relate the leukocytes presence in urine with the choice of eating salty food or sweet food. Leukocytes urine level was measured by using a urinalysis method. It was decided that there is no scientific relation on the choice of liking either salty food or sweet food to eat with the presence of leukocytes in urine.

Research Article

Association between Cheek Dimple and pH of Urine

Muhammad Imran Qadir, Hafiz Muhammad Noman Ajmal & Saher Fatima

Abstract: The objective of present study was to check the association between cheek dimple and pH of urine. Urine is the fluid by-product made from the human’s metabolism and animals. pH of excrement indicates and classifies urine, whether or not urine dilute is acid or base resolution. Commonly pH is seven. If there's pH not up to seven its mean excrement is acidic and pH scale of urine will increase once pH is larger than 7. There are many sorts of dimples. The cheek dimple causes you to look stunning especially once you smile. The chin and cheek dimples are referred to as the cleft. Several scientists say that once there's partial fusion throughout embryo formation, it makes dimple on face. Dipstick test analyze the different components of urine like pH, glucose, bilirubin, urobilinogen and specific gravity. After testing their urine we asked the subjects a question whether they have cheek dimple on face or not? They gave us answers and we made a list of their answers with pH of urine. Total of 100 subjects took part in the survey and they were students. Our study concluded that those subjects having pH 6 are more likely to have dimples.

Review Article

Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Future of Stem Cell Therapy

Muhammad Arif Saleem, Sana Nayyab, Mahrukh Sharif, Sana Nisar & Iram Taalay

Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent stromal stem cells that can differentiate to any kind of cells like bone, cartilage, adipose, muscles, and neural cells. Mesenchymal stem cells can be derived from different tissues such as bone marrow, dental pulp, adipose tissues, and umbilical cord. But the human umbilical cord is the rich source of mesenchymal stem cells that are usually collected at the birth of a child, are being used in the treatment of auto-immune disease and also for treating diseases of the blood. In the past, most of the diseases were used to treat by the transplantation of organs or by embryonic stem cells. But transplantation of organs usually carries the risk of organ rejection and the other major drawback of this treatment is the unavailability of the proper donor. And if we use pre-specialized will produce only specific cells. While in umbilical cord therapy, we use stem cells that are not pre-specialized. The hUCMSCs are being used in the cochlea to repair sensorineural hearing, they are being used for the treatment of the corneal diseases, liver cirrhosis, liver fibrosis, diabetes mellitus, dilated cardiopathy, neurodegenerative diseases, joint pathologies, radiation-induced lung injury, and periventricular leukomalacia. The umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells can be obtained from umbilical cord blood that contains hematopoietic stem cells, and also from Wharton’s jelly, cord lining, perivascular region. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of hUCMSCs for treatment of a different type of blood, immune system, neurodegenerative disease, and to check the effect of pigment epithelium-derived factor on hUCMSCs and effect of hexachlorophene on hUCMSCs.

Research Article

Motion Control of Single Link Flexible Joint Robot Manipulator Using ANFIS MATLAB Simulation

Johnson Antony A

Abstract: The motion control of single link flexible joint robot manipulator is reduce the vibration of tip of the manipulator. The advance methodology is to optimize fuzzy logic controller parameters via neural network and use the adaptive neuro-fuzzy scheme to control single link flexible joint robot manipulators. The dynamics of single link robot manipulators are highly nonlinear with strong couplings existing between joints and are frequently subjected to structured and unstructured uncertainties. The increased complexity of the motions of robots manipulator considering joint elasticity makes conventional control strategies complex and difficult to synthesize. This paper presents investigations into the development of adaptive neuro Fuzzy control for position and velocity control of a flexible joint manipulator. To study the effectiveness of the controllers, a adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Controller is developed for tip angular position and velocity control of a single link flexible joint manipulator. This is then extended to incorporate an ANFIS Controller for velocity error reduction of the flexible joint system. Simulation results of the response of the flexible joint manipulator with the ANFIS controllers are presented in time domains. The performances of the ANFIS schemes are examined in terms of input position and velocity tracking capability, level of robot vibration reduction and time response specifications.

Research Article

Foscal-i tablets: A Genetically Recommended Calcium Nutriture

Govind Shukla, Monica Yadav, Madugula Mahender & C.J.Sampath Kumar

Abstract: Calcium is very essential in muscle contraction, oocyte activation, building strong bones and teeth, blood clotting, nerve impulse, transmission, regulating heart beat and fluid balance within cells. The requirements are greatest during the period of growth such as childhood, during pregnancy, when breast feeding. Long term of calcium deficiency can lead to oestoporosis in which the bone deteriorates and there is an increased risk of fractures. Eating a well-balanced calcium supplement like Foscal-i tablet can provide all the necessary nutrients and help prevent calcium deficiency. The present paper Reviews the Role of Foscal-i tablets developed by R&D cell of Lactonova Nutripharm Pvt Ltd. Hyderabad in maintaining optimum health and wellbeing.

Review Article

Microplastic is an Emerging Problem for Marine Life

Muhammad Asif Raheem, Misbah Aslam, Muhammad Saeed, Muhammad Faisal & Rana Khalid Iqbal

Abstract: Microplastic is an emerging problem for aquatic as well as terrestrial organisms. Plastic is a synthetic material which is produced from organic polymers including polyethylene, nylon and PVC. There are mainly two types of the MP 1st is primary microplastic and 2nd is secondary microplastic. The source of these microplastic are domestic and industrial products include sunscreens, cosmetic, scrubbers (facial scrubs and hand cleansers) personal care products, insect repellents and materials used in air-blasting, other industrial applications and some plastic are produce breaking of very large plastic by a different process such as chemical deposition, physical fragmentation, physical fragmentation and biological degradation in terrestrial or marine environments. Microplastic cause lethal effect on marine organisms includes invertebrates, vertebrates and other biotas of the marine organisms. Microplastic cause tissue and organ damages, the effect on respiration rates, reduction of feeding, the effect on digestive cavities, to impaired immune functions and physiological stress which influence the status of health and the behavior, accumulation within mussels cause cellular damage which response to oxidative stress and toxic reaction in all organisms of water. Microplastic in aquatic organisms not only kills the marine organisms but also disturb human health. Microplastic directly or indirectly enters into the human food chain and cause digestive problems, stomach disease and cancer in human. Microplastic also causes financial damage because fishes are the main source of income in many countries. Without immediate strong preventive measures about microplastic many problems will be world face in the future. In this article, we discuss the about the source of microplastic, transfer of microplastic, the effect on marine organisms as well as human, ingestion of microplastic and control measure of microplastic.

Research Article

Is There Any Connection Between Depression And Urine Glucose?

Muhammad Imran Qadir, Asma Zia Muhammad Hanif & Shujaat Hussain

Abstract: The objective of present study was to analyze the connection of depression with urine glucose level. Excretory product glucose check may be a fast and easy checkup method for abnormally high levels of glucose in your excretory product. Despairing or depression for the most part named as sadness is a run of the mill yet certified outlook issue. To be resolved to have wretchedness, the reactions must be accessible for some place around fourteen days.

Research Article

Interconnection Between Moles On Face And Urine Leukocytes

Muhammad Imran Qadir, Summia Siddique & Shah Qiaz

Abstract: Leukocytes esterase is a compound found in leukocytes. A couple of microscopic organisms cause the urinary tract contamination which prompts white platelets in pee. An ordinary range in blood is between 4, 600 to 10, 000 white platelets for each microliter. Moles may wrap up lessen after preface to the light amidst the immature years or pregnancy. UV light that starts from the sun opens to moles and makes them risky. The attributes that exchange from our kin near to extent of sun introduction (amidst energy) are veritable points of view in picking measures of moles.

Case Study

A Case Study on Factors Affecting Environmental Sustainability Development

Hadi Erfani

Abstract: The only way to save the world is to protect the Environment. Today, caring for the Environment is one of the most important things for human beings because preserving it is equal to preserving human life. Environmental challenges became important in the 1980s. generation, conversion, transmission and energy consumption all have an impact on the environment. The relationship between sustainable development and the utilization of resources especially energy is one of the most important issues in human societies and the realization of sustainable development depends on the use of energy resources. Environmental issues have a growing scope and include pollutant emissions and ecosystem degradation and degradation factors at the regional and global scales. The environment is a seat of physical, chemical, biological, social, economic factors that relate to the individual community and population in various ways. The difference between the environment and nature the definition of nature includes a set of natural, biological and non-biological factors that are considered exclusively while the term environmental is described in term of interactions between humans and nature and from its perspective. Sustainability is a concept in ecology and the environment that refers to actions that are not at odds with the continued evolution of life and ecosystems.

Research Article

Is There Relativity of Chicken Likeness With Presence of Protein in Urine?

Muhammad Imran Qadir, Salma Batool & Riffat Malik

Abstract: Normal and healthy kidney not get permit to remove the proteins from blood, but in some cases the proteins leak by the kidney and pass through the urine. Chicken is a wild and domestic animal. Their first domestic purpose was not food but as a fighter. Wild type chicken can fly large distances while domestic can fly but for the shorter distances. The objective of present study was to correlate between chicken likeness and urine protein. Most of students took part in the current study and they were the under graduates of Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan. All the tools were arranged by us that we used during the testing of glucose in urine. The glucose in urine test was performed by us. We concluded that there is no specific relation between chicken likeness and urine protein.

Review Article

Preservation of Milk and Dairy Products by Using Biopreservatives

Saba Ameer, Soha Aslam & Muhammad Saeed

Abstract: Dairy products help to meet the need of essential nutrients that are difficult to obtain in daily life without milk and its products like yogurt, cheese, butter. Milk is almost sterile when secreted from a healthy udder. Lower temperature and boiling the milk help in retarding the growth of spoilage organisms. Biopreservation is a method in which natural microbiota or antimicrobials are used in food to enhance the shelf-life. For this purpose affordable microorganisms are selected to control the pathogenic activity. The main organism which is used is lactic acid bacteria and their metabolites. They have the ability to show the antimicrobial features and maintain the sole flavor of food. Lactic acid bacteria are considered as great biopreservatives. Other LAB such as nisin has broad range of application in food industry and approved by food and drug administration (FDA). Other metabolites such as enterococci, Bacteriophages and endolysins used as bio-preservation and have promising role in milk storage. As these are economically important due to their drastic advantages like non-toxic, availability, non-immunogenic and broad activity so, they are considered to be good agent for biopreservation. This review will focus on application of biopreservatives to reduce the spoilage and increase the safety of milk products.