Middle East Journal of Applied Science & Technology

Volume 4 Issue 1 January-March 2021

Research Article

PANI/g-C3N4/CeO2 Nanocomposite for Photodegradation of Diazinon in Aqueous Solution

Abdu Hussen

Page No. 01-22

 Abstract: Diazinon is one of organophosphate pesticides which it is classified as a relatively dangerous substance (Class II by WHO). The PANI/g C3N4/ CeO2 nanocomposite was synthesized by in situ polymerization method to determine the efficiency of photocatalytic degradation of diazinon. The photocatalytic activities efficiencies of the supported and unsupported nanocomposites were evaluated using diazinon as a model pollutant. The superior photocatalytic effect of the PANI/g C3N4/CeO2 nanocomposite is attributed to the synergistic effect of PANI and g C3N4/CeO2 which promotes migration efficiency of the photogenerated carriers on the g C3N4/CeO2 nanocomposite interface. The effects of pH, initial diazinon concentration, catalyst load, hydrogen peroxide as well as effect of other organic compound were investigated using photocatalytic degradation of PANI/g C3N4/CeO2. The results obtained indicate the efficient degradation at pH= 6 which extent to 94.08 %, at 10 ppm extent to 88.9%, at 0.1 g/L extent to 97.48 %; were as increasing the concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the percent of degradation of diazinon increased due to the increased reaction between hydrogen peroxide and electron in the conduction band of PANI/g-C3N4/CeO2. Hydrogen peroxide can effectively inhibited electron hole recombination. Therefore hydrogen peroxide is better electron acceptor than dissolved oxygen; it acts as an alternative electron acceptor to oxygen. The effect of different organic compound on the photocatalytic degradation of diazinon; organic compound such as phenol, citric acid, EDTA and oxalic acid were examined, the result indicated that photocatalytic degradation was negatively affected in the presence of all organic compounds.

Research Article

Pre-extension Demonstration of OARI-Assela Model-3 Multi Crop Thresher for Wheat and Sorghum in Arsi ZONE

Aman Nebo & Ashebir Tsegaye

Page No. 23-29

 Abstract: The research activity was carried out in two purposively selected districts namely Merti and Chole from Arsi zone with the objectives of evaluating the performance and profitability of the multi-crop thresher under farmers’ management, creating awareness on the importance of the technology and enhancing farmers’ knowledge and use of the technology. Four kebeles were purposively selected based on their accessibility and four framers research extension groups composed of members representing male, female and youth were organized to undertake the demonstration. Practical training was given to a total of ninety two farmers on OARI-Assela Model-3 Multi Crop Thresher technology. The demonstration was conducted on four hosting farmers from FRGs. The results of the study depict that average threshing capacity of multi crop thresher for wheat and sorghum were 21.5 and 50 quintals in eight working hours. Whereas the average threshing capacity for wheat and sorghum 3.6 and eight 8.5 quintals in eight working hours. The demonstrated thresher machine had relative advantage over traditional practice in terms of reducing post-harvest crop lose by 2.4 quintals. Net income of farmers increased from 31, 375 birr to 37,530 birr for wheat and 10,125 birr to 12,310 birr for sorghum because of using multi crop thresher. Thus, OARI Model Multi crop thresher was recommended for further scaling.

Research Article

Design of Sub-Soiler for Deep Tillage Operation of Compacted Soil Due to Heavy Duty Agricultural Machinery Traffic on the Field

Merga Workesa Dula & Dereje Alemu Anawute

Page No. 30-50

 Abstract: Design of effective and efficient cutting tools begins with the analysis of soil failure, to predict the forces and energy required by the implements. Soil compaction by heavy agricultural equipment is among the most important soil degradation agents on many farms around the world. The movement of heavy farm machinery and livestock progressively contributes to soil compaction on farms. Apart from soil compaction being caused by mechanically applied forces, drying and shrinkage can also cause it. The aim of this paper is to design tractor-mounted sub-soiler for soil loosening and to reduce soil compaction caused by heavy-duty agricultural machinery in conventional agriculture particularly to determine the total force required during sub-soiling operation without failure and enhance the theoretical understanding and practical application of tillage implement design.

Review Article

Relationship between Gastrointestinal Parasites and Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Khartoum State, Sudan

Mohamed Hassan Ahmed Kebayer, Tafawl Ibrahim Karrar, Mubarak Ibrahim Idriss Musa, Khadega Suleiman Mohammed Zarroug & Hajhamed R.M.

Page No. 51-57

 Abstract: This study was case control conducted in different hospitals in Khartoum state. The study involved two hundred stool samples collected from 100 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and another 100 as control. The results showed that 51 (51%) of irritable bowel syndrome patients as well as 33 (33%) of the control were harboring gastrointestinal parasites. This difference in rates was found to be statistically insignificant at p= 0.076. The study revealed that Entamoeba histolytica was seen in 22% of the IBS cases followed by Entamoeba coli in 18%, Giardia lamblia in 16%, Chilomastix mesnili in 4%, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia spp and Enterobius vermicularis in 3% each and Ascaris lumbricoides in 1%. Lower rates were reported among the control group where Entamoeba histolytica was seen in 19% of the control followed by Entamoeba coli in 15%, Giardia lamblia in 11%, Hymenolepis nana in 2%, Chilomastix mesnili, hook worm and Ascaris lumbricoides in 1% each.

Research Article

Development of an Innovative Method for Calculating the Tool of a Robot: The Method of the Sphere

Stefano Farné

Page No. 58-68

 Abstract: This article aims at analyzing some aspects relating to the programming and operation of robots, with particular reference to those used in the construction of road and agricultural vehicles. The introduction of these automatic tools inside factories has revolutionized their existence. In fact, the current state of automation allows, with robots, to carry out the same operations in less time and certainly with better precision than that obtainable with previous manual processing: in other terms, the process capability is considerably improved. This implies greater efficiency, greater effectiveness and consequently greater productivity with cost savings. The article proposes an innovative method for calculating the tool of a robot.

Review Article

Bacterial Agents of Enteric Diseases of Public Health Concern in Benghazi City, Libya

Marei A. Altayar, Mansour A. Hamed, Abdurraouf .M. K. Said, Idress Hamad Attitalla & Sleman A.Elgared

Page No. 69-79

 Abstract: Background: Globally, infectious diarrhea (also known as gastroenteritis) estimated as a major public health concern. Fortunately, such diseases are self-limiting, but the diagnosis of the infecting microbe is important for the prevention and control of the disease (food-borne disease). Infectious diarrhea is a major cause of childhood mortality, with estimated 1.9 and 5.6 million deaths yearly. In the last few decades, several enteric pathogens including bacteria (such as, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Shigella), viruses (e.g., norovirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus), and parasites (e.g., Cryptosporidium spp.) have been identified as important causes of diarrhea in humans, particularly in children. However, these pathogens either have not yet or have rarely been reported from pediatric diarrhea in Libya and other countries of the North Africa region. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the presence of bacterial agents of enteric disease in the study area. Methods: Stool samples collected from three hundred Libyan children with diarrhea, attending to Benghazi pediatric hospital in Benghazi, were examined for bacterial agents, the specimens were cultured and antibiotic sensitivity done using standard microbiological techniques. The study was carried out between April 2016- and April 2017. Results: Of the 300 examined stool samples, Salmonella was detected in 13 (4.3%). gender (53.85%) were from male the remaining (46.15%) were from female .The majority of isolates (84.6%) were from patients less than 5 years old. All isolates were in the summer season. Antibiotic resistance was low in our study. All isolates were sensitive to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol. The result reveals statistically significant association between diarrhea and patients' age, seasonal variation and Antibiotic sensitivity. Conclusion: The present work has clearly demonstrated that Salmonella is the causative agents of diarrhea. In the future, studies are needed on larger groups of patients from major cities in Libya to determine the exact role of these bacteria in children diarrhea in the country.

Research Article

Land Use/Land Cover Change Detection Using Geospatial Techniques and Field Survey on Chetambe Hills in Bungoma County, Kenya

Kandawala Fred Muchuma, Joy Obando & Raphael Kweyu

Page No. 80-93

 Abstract: Change detection is useful in many land use and land cover (LULC) applications, such as land degradation, deforestation, settlement, and desertification and landslide susceptibility. Geospatial technologies such as remote sensing and the Geographic Information System significantly enhance the identification of areas classified as rural, forest or settlements. Satellite remote sensing data, with their repetitive nature, has proved to be very useful in mapping land use / land cover patterns and changes over time. Quantification of such changes is possible through GIS techniques even if the resultant spatial datasets are of different scales/ resolutions. Such studies have helped in understanding the dynamics of human activities in space and time. The rationale of this study was to evaluate land use /land cover changes on Chetambe hills from 2000 to 2015 for sustainable land use planning. Analysis of the satellite images was done using GIS to determine the rate of change of human activities along the slopes with time. For the period 2000 to 2015, four satellite images were obtained within a time span of five years that is, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015. These images were analysed using GIS and regression models to obtain the LULC change. The study revealed that settlement had the highest variability across all the periods in relation to other land cover/land use like forests, wooded grassland, annual and perennial cropland. The study showed an image difference of 815 pixels (6.252%) in 2002 – 2006, 1699 pixels (12.267%) in 2006 – 2010, 314 pixels (2.293%) in 2.293%) in 2010 – 2012 and finally 448 pixels (3.199%) in 2012 – 2014. This study recommends that areas with higher LULC change need government intervention to protect them through legislation and penalties to avoid further land degradation on the hills.

Review Article

Tick Prevalence on Ruminant Livestock Around the Volta River Basin of Southern Ghana

Musa Bah, Delphina Adabie-Gomez, Muhammad Qamar Shahid & Fred Aboagye-Antwi

Page No. 94-105

 Abstract: Ticks can negatively affect livestock production and welfare. The prevalence of ticks on ruminant livestock was assessed from selected communities around the Volta River basin in Southern Ghana. 368 ruminants (209 cattle, 53 sheep, and 106 goats) were randomly sampled for tick prevalence from nine purposively selected villages. 37 questionnaires were also administered to individual farmers about their demography, knowledge on tick infestation on livestock and husbandry practices. The collected ticks were morphologically identified. IBM SPSS version 23 was used for descriptive analysis of the collected data. Cattle had the highest tick prevalent and sheep had the lowest. A statistically significant difference was found in prevalence between adult and young animals and between the ruminants. Three tick genera with an invasive species were identified: Rhipicephalus, Amblyomma and Hyalomma inorder of prevalent. From considered risk factors age showed significant association, whiles sex and body condition did not. The major management system was semi intensive. Farmers reported more tick prevalence during the rainy seasons and majority of the them used acaricides as control measures. The study concluded that Rhipicephalus and Amblyoma were more prevalence and the farmers used acaricides as control measures. Rhipicehalus microplus was reported as an invasive species.

Research Article

SAR Image Classification Using Machine Learning

Brindha R, Jeslin J, Keerthana M & Nivedha J

Page No. 106-116

 Abstract: In today's existence, satellite imaging plays an important role in identifying landscape features on the surface of the earth. Sophisticated sensors record the apparent hue and the other spectrums in high-resolution images. Satellite imaging is interpreted and analysed for advanced remote sensing applications including meteorology, oceanography, fisheries, agriculture, conservation of habitats, forestry, landscape, geology, mapping, regional planning, education, intelligence and wars. Digital image processing has become a challenge with the accelerated development of these emerging application domains. The photographs collected by the satellite were interpreted and analysed In order to recognised the exact objects on the earth surface that provide a lot of geographical detail, interpretation and analysis have been performed on the satellite images. Classifying objects on images is actually a major field of study in the processing of pictures. It can thus be used in different applications in real time. Recent classification works on the objects present in satellite images are based on assembly processes, a mixture of one or more classification systems. For image improvement, precise segmentation and classification of input images, new methods are proposed. A new algorithm is applied in order to increase the contrast and denounce the input image resulting in a very high quality output image at the integrated stages of the work "Integrated wavelet-based Satellite Image Enhancement (IWSE)".

Review Article

The Effectiveness of English Literature in Inculcating Civic Education Principles among Saudi Learners from Mental Model Perspective

Dr. Elsadig Ali Elsadig Elnadeef & Dr. Abazar Mohammed Nugdallah Mohammed

Page No. 117-125

 Abstract: This study critically investigates the effectiveness of English literature in inculcating civic education principles among Saudi learners from a mental model perspective. The study entails the role of literature in formulating an ideal citizen and shaping positive perception towards Saudi Arabia and the globe. Citing to Saudi Arabia where English has been taught in different educational institutions as a mandatory subject, teaching English literature becomes a core course which involves language input from language learning enrichment perspective. This study aims at accentuating the significant role of literature in inculcating civic education principles and constructing a positive mental model which involves a positive perception of the globe. The researchers propose that English literature plays a salient role in creating cogent constructive consciousness among Saudi learners who are targeted to positively participate in sustainable development in Saudi Arabia. The study is based on a descriptive analytical approach employing qualitative methodology. The researchers use close reading and configurative reading as a tool for data collection. The purpose of this study is to examine the role of literature in constructing civic education aiming at building the good behavior of citizens and making them active participants in the sustainable development of Saudi Arabia. This study will hopefully help Saudi educators and education policymakers understand the significance of studying English literature in developing patriotism sense and ethical conception, which help individuals present themselves as a good citizen. In addition, studying literature can be a source of linguistic input for students, intercultural enrichment source, horizon-broadening factor and it is a valuable source for learners' motivation. The major findings of the study have revealed that English literature enriches civility awareness and intercultural comprehension. Moreover, it broadens Saudi learner's horizons and sensitivity.

Research Article

PUGOS Nutrition for Menopause Women

Govind Shukla, Monica Yadav, Anusha kandala, Uddhav L Kanade, Arun Kumar Junjipelly & C.J.Sampath Kumar

Page No. 126-143

 Abstract: Menopause is a natural phase in a woman’s life that can be thought of as a time of ovarian retirement. At birth women have about one million eggs in their ovaries. At puberty ovulation starts and eggs are released by the ovaries each month for the purpose of conception. As the years go by, the amount of eggs gradually declines until menopause, when the ovaries shut down and stop producing estrogen and progesterone, the two main female sex hormones. Menopause occurs when ovulation ceases and a woman can no longer conceive naturally. After menopause the adrenal glands, which supply some sex hormones throughout life, become the primary source. Women who have poor adrenal function, which can be caused by chronic stress, poor diet, lack of sleep, or excessive caffeine, are not able to provide adequate hormone amounts, and may have more severe menopausal symptoms. Estrogen can also be produced in the fat cells from androgens. There are many lifestyle measures and PUGOS supplements that can promote hormone balance and ease menopausal concerns.

Review Article

The Effectiveness of Intercultural Communication in Comprehending the Short Story-Shooting an Elephant by George Orwell

Dr. Abazar Mohammed Nugdallah Mohammed & Dr. Elsadig Ali Elsadig Elnadeef

Page No. 144-154

 Abstract: This study aims at analyzing intercultural communication in shooting an Elephant (Short Story) by George Orwell. The study investigates the intercultural communication from various perspectives: culture, identity, prejudice, ethnicity, nationality, gender and social class. The researchers choose this short story because it encompasses intercultural communication, which is composed of British and Burma in colonization era. The method of the study is based on discursive, close and deconstructive reading in comprehending the text. The researchers use ethnographic approach entailing the following aspects: nationality, ethnicity, social stratification, culture, gender, age, and prejudice. The story shows the intercultural communication from various perspectives in terms of colonizer and being colonized. The study recommends that identity involves collective thinking and mass orientation, feeling of being oppressed can lead to prejudice and otherization and intercultural communication should be considered from negotiate shared meanings, which have three layers of meaning: content, relational, and identity and it should be understood from relational, psychological, and physical contexts aspect.

Research Article

MediBox-IoT Enabled Patient Assisting Device

Abdul Azeem K, Ajay M, Vengetesh M & Dr.G.Saravanavenkatesh

Page No. 155-162

 Abstract: The aim of this project is to develop an IoT based patient assisting device was implemented for monitoring the people to intake tablet periodically. The health and wellness sector is critical to human society and as such should be one of the first to receive the benefits of upcoming technologies like IoT. Some of the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) is connected to IoT networks to monitor the day-to-day activities of the patients. Recently there has been an attempt to design new medical devices which monitor the medications and help aged people for a better assisted living. In this paper, one such attempt is made to design a multipurpose portable intelligent device named MEDIBOX which helps the patients take their medications at the right time and also to monitor the patient health through IoT.

Research Article

Covid 19: Impact on Eye Health

Dr. Vinod Yadav

Page No. 163-171

 Abstract: COVID-19 virus causes mild to severe respiratory illness. People who are exposed to coronavirus may show symptoms anywhere from two to 14 days later. Those symptoms can include fever, cough and shortness of breath. Some people can develop pneumonia, and become seriously ill or die from coronavirus complications. Coronavirus can spread through the eyes, just as it does through the mouth or nose. When someone who has coronavirus coughs or talks, virus particles can spray from their mouth or nose into our face. We are likely to breathe these tiny droplets in through our mouth or nose. But the droplets can also enter your body through our eyes. People who have coronavirus can also spread the disease through their tears. Touching tears or a surface where tears have landed is another way someone can become infected. The present Article reviews the effect of Covid-19 infection on eyes.