Middle East Journal of Applied Science & Technology

Volume 4 Issue 3 July-September 2021

Research Article

A Simplified Fractal Texture Analysis Approach using Quadtree Decomposition with Huffman Coding Technique

J. Rani & G. Glorindal

Page No. 01-09

 Abstract: Fractal compression is compression of the lossy type, which is applied for natural textured images. A fractal image compression technique based on the Quadtree algorithm and Huffman coding is proposed in this work. Agonizingly, the term "fractal compression" refers to an image compression technique that uses the fractal geometry of the image data stream to achieve lossy compression. Realistic images and textures are created with the help of this tool. It is based on the fact that parts of an image are frequently similar to other parts of the same image, which allows for faster processing. The most widely used partitioning mechanism is image partitioning in a tree structure. In this emerging world of image processing, quadtree partitioning is a one-of-a-kind technique that divides an image into a set of homogeneous regions. Huffman coding is a type of data compression that is lossless. The Huffman encoding algorithm is introduced through this technique, which creates an alphabetic list of all of the alphabet symbols, which is then arranged in descending order of their likelihood of occurring. The peak signal-to-noise ratio is quite improved by employing the proposed technique, and the encoding time is reduced.

DOI: http://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2021.4301

Research Article

INSULIKE Tablets: A Phenotypic Nutrition for Natural Sugar Balance

Govind Shukla, C. Subrahmanyam, Aishwarya Pothuganti, Akanksha Sonal Khess & C.J Sampath Kumar

Page No. 10-18

 Abstract: Diabetes is a multifactorial disease leading to several complications, and therefore demands a multiple therapeutic approach. Patients of diabetes either do not make enough insulin or their cells do not respond to insulin. In case of total lack of insulin, patients are given insulin injections. Whereas in case of those where cells do not respond to insulin many different drugs are developed taking into consideration possible disturbances in carbohydrate-metabolism. For example, to manage post-prandial hyper-glycaemia at digestive level, glucosidase inhibitors such as acarbose, miglitol and voglibose are used. These inhibit degradation of carbohydrates there by reducing the glucose absorption by the cells. To enhance glucose uptake by peripheral cells biguanide such as metformin is used. Sulphonylureas, like glibenclamide, is insulinotropic and work as secretogogue for pancreatic cells. Although several therapies are in use for treatment, there are certain limitations due to high cost and side effects such as development of hypoglycemia, weight gain, gastrointestinal disturbances, liver toxicity etc. Based on recent advances and involvement of oxidative stress in complicating diabetes mellitus, efforts are on to find suitable antidiabetic and antioxidant therapy. Medicinal plants are being looked upon once again for the treatment of diabetes. Many conventional drugs have been derived from prototypic molecules in medicinal plants. Metformin exemplifies an efficacious oral glucose-lowering agent. To date, over 400 traditional plant treatments for diabetes have been reported, although only a small number of these have received scientific and medical evaluation to assess their efficacy. The hypoglycemic effect of some herbal extracts has been confirmed in human and animal models of type 2 diabetes. The World Health Organization Expert Committee on diabetes has recommended that traditional medicinal herbs be further investigated. The present paper Reviews the Role of Insulike tablets developed by R&D cell of Lactonova Nutripharm Pvt Ltd. Hyderabad in the role of herbal nutraceutical drug INSULIKE, A nutriphenotypic approach for the treatment of diabetes.

DOI: http://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2021.4302

Review Article

Removal of Chromium (VI) from Textile Waste Water by Using Activated Carbon Prepared from Neem Leaves and Garlic Husk

M. R. Priyadharshini & K. Soundhirajan

Page No. 19-28

 Abstract: This review of article is about the removal of Chromium (VI) from textile waste water by using activated carbon prepared from neem leaves and garlic husk. This article presents about adsorption, activated carbon and its process, characteristics of commercially activated carbon, methods to test characteristics of activated carbon, preparation of garlic husk and neem leaves and its adsorbent preparation. Also a detailed study report of physio chemical properties of activated garlic husk powder and neem powder, removal of heavy metal and its toxicity was discussed. The garlic husk powder and neem powder were activated using HCL in which the test results were comparatively same with commercially activated carbon. The particle size, yield, moisture content, ash content and pH of neem and garlic powder were found to be 875 micron and 850 micron, 60.540% and 58.60%, 6.25% and 7.50%, 3.10% and 4.10%, 6.80 and 7.65 respectively. The main scope this project is to remove heavy metals from textile waste water in future with the help of prepared activated carbon using garlic husk and neem leaves. The present study is aimed at preparing the carbon from neem leaves and garlic husk by thermal activation procedure and will be tested for the removal of Chromium (VI) from aqueous solution. The results of the present study suggest that activated carbon from neem leaves and garlic husk can be used beneficially for chromium removal from aqueous solution.

DOI: http://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2021.4303

Review Article

Treatment of Municipal Waste Water Using Naturally Available Coagulant

Safna Thesni, Roopa D. & K. Soundhirarajan

Page No. 29-39

 Abstract: This paper reviews an attempt to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of natural coagulants such as tamarindus indica seed powder and carica papaya seed powder for the treatment of Municipal waste water. This study mainly focused on turbidity removal, Total dissolved solids, Chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids from Municipal waste water. The main aim of the environmental agencies and government are to seek ways to minimize the considerable increase in the rate of water pollution due to urbanization and industrialization. Coagulation and flocculation using chemicals are also adopted for treatment process. But due to high cost of chemical coagulants, this can be replaced by natural coagulants. This experiment was conducted at room temperature without adjusting the PH. Various conditions such as coagulant dose, stirring time and settling time is varied and its optimum values are obtained. Results show the reduction in turbidity, TDS, TSS, Ph, TS and COD by using natural coagulants.

DOI: http://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2021.4304

Research Article

Design of Small-scale Biogas Plant for Household Need

Suthajini Thiruketheeswaranathan & Anojan Dharshayini

Page No. 40-43

 Abstract: Bioenergy production is a promising way to manage the organic waste material while generating the heat and electricity. Anaerobic digestion of the organic material is gaining attraction due to its easy operation and the cost effectiveness. Biogas plant is an efficient bio energy production which mainly practices in developing country to transform waste into gas through the anaerobic digestion. It is a renewable energy source which helps to fulfil the energy need especially for developing country. In this research, the small-scale biogas plant was designed and implemented for household need with cow dung as a substrate. Biogas composition was measured with a multifunctional portable gas analyser. The mean content of methane (CH4) was 63.64% and carbon dioxide (CO2) was 29.04%. Substrate was allowed for store in varying time, i.e., one week, two weeks, and three weeks before the digestion process to increase the bacterial community. The longer the manure/cow dung is stored in a closed container before pass through the digester, the shorter the time for the anaerobic decomposition process.

DOI: http://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2021.4305

Research Article

Determinants of the Uptake of Free Maternity Services among Pregnant Mothers in Malava Sub-County, in Kakamega County, Kenya

Lydia Bwana, Prof. Fred Amimo & Dr. Daniel Onguru

Page No. 44-62

 Abstract: Over the past decade, Kenya has made tremendous efforts to enhance maternal and child health. Secure maternity policies such as free maternity care are one of the initiatives that have enhanced maternal and child health in all public health facilities. Despite these attempts, public health facilities for maternal and child health are still underused. This study employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design to identify determinants of free maternal health services by evaluating factors determining perceptions and health-seeking behavior of 384 pregnant mothers in Malava Sub-County, Kakamega County. The study used a mixed-method (quantitative and qualitative approaches). Questionnaires were administered to pregnant mothers selected for the study. The study employed a purposive sampling of research participants. Quantitative data were collected using the questionnaire administered by the research assistants whereas qualitative data were collected by the researcher through interview schedules. Quantitative data analysis was carried out using SPSS 23. However, qualitative data were analyzed through content analysis. Quantitative data representation was done in terms of frequency and percentages. Analysis of chi-square testing was used to assess the association between the variables of socio-economic and health facilities and the provision of free maternity facilities (p<0.05). The study established that the uptake of free maternal service by pregnant mothers was influenced by their level of primitivism and religious beliefs. In addition, this study found out that 53.8% and 77.7% of the pregnant mothers could not attend antenatal and post-natal care because government facilities were located far away from their residences and they also had less access to some information about free maternal health care. The results of this research would be disseminated to the hospital management team, Sub-Country health management team, County health management team, and other stakeholders, thereby demonstrating reasons for low uptake of free maternity services and helping to strategize for better service delivery. Based on the finding, the study recommends that to improve access to free maternal health care, the county government ought to place health services as close as possible to the community where people live. Secondly, there is a need to embrace the usage of the existing media network to sensitize pregnant mothers to the danger signs and the need to have decision-making powers over their safety. Lastly, hospital management ought to increase the awareness of free maternal health care and to include it among the community priorities during dialog days, action days, and other group discussions.

DOI: http://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2021.4306

Research Article

Motivational and Self-Regulation towards Learning Technology and Computer Value Belief among VSU-Isabel Students during COVID-19 Online Classes

Mariane C. Inocellas & Dr. Rodulfo T. Aunzo, Jr.

Page No. 63-70

 Abstract: Philippine tertiary students are now in online learning classes due to COVID-19. Thus, this study investigated the students' motivation and self-regulation toward learning technology and computer value. The correlation approach is utilized in establishing the relationship between student's motivation and self-regulation towards learning technology and computer value. The study revealed that students have a positive motivation and self-regulation in learning technology, and also, the students agreed about the importance of computers during COVID-19. The study also revealed a significant and moderate positive correlation, r(685)=0.577, p<.01, between the students' motivational and self-regulation towards learning technology and computer value. These findings recommend enhancing students' exposure to the various digital learning environments to enhance students' motivation, self-regulation, and computer value, which will improve their engagement in the teaching-learning process during these COVID-19 classes.

DOI: http://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2021.4307