Middle East Journal of Applied Science & Technology

Volume 4 Issue 4 October-December 2021


Research Article

Determinants of Malaria Prevalence among Children below Five Years in North West Kisumu Ward, Kisumu County, Kenya: A Cross-Sectional Study

Midem David, Dr. Daniel Onguru & Babu Lawrence

Page No. 01-18

 Abstract: Background: Globally, malaria remains a major public health problem. In 2019 an estimated 229 million cases of malaria were reported, WHO African region accounted for 94% of total cases. In Kenya, malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children under five years living in malaria endemic zones. This study investigated the factors that are associated with malaria prevalence among children under-five years living in North West Kisumu Ward, Kisumu County. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at Chulaimbo County Hospital from July 2019 to January 2020. Using a validated structured questionnaire, data were obtained from 369 randomly sampled children < 5 years who presented with signs and symptoms of malaria and had malaria positive or negative test results from the laboratory. Children with chronic illnesses such as HIV were not enrolled. Chi-square test of independence and logistic regression analysis was done using SPSS 20.0 software. Results: Out of 369 participants, 183 (49.6%) tested positive for malaria. Child age was significantly associated with malaria (P = 0.04). There were low malaria odds among females (OR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.61-1.39) and in households where mothers (OR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.16-1.37) or fathers (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.31-2.35) had university education. Low malaria risk was also reported among children whose fathers had employment (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.49-1.80). On the contrary, high malaria risk was recorded among children whose mothers were employed (OR = 1.24, 95% CI 0.62-2.50). Children from married respondents were likely to test positive for malaria (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.60-1.93). Children who used bed nets were less likely to test positive for malaria (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.35-1.41). Surprisingly, low malaria risk was reported among severely malnourished children (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.42-1.20). Conclusion: Child age and bed net use, but not nutritional status, are important determinants of malaria prevalence in children under 5 years. The Ministry of Health should promote more efforts towards protecting young children from malaria, by ensuring access and use of bed nets, and enhancing health education.

DOI: http://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2021.4401


Research Article

Does Different Factors like Blood in Urine, Urobilinogen in Urine, Ketone in Urine, Nitrites in Urine, Leukocyte Presence in Urine, Urine pH or Glucose in Urine are Correlated with Shape of Thumb?

Aneela Bashir

Page No. 19-27

 Abstract: Having visible blood in urine is called gross hematuria. It may be because of menstrual bleeding in women. The major cause of blood in urine other than days when you are menstruating could be because of certain drugs e.g. warfarin used in case of heart diseases to thin the blood. Another cause of blood in urine might be using food that contains unmetabolised pigments that cause red color in urine. They concluded that there are different thumb shape that exists and the allele’s controls the shape of the thumb are “S” and small “s”. S is dominant allele and “s” is recessive. No relation between thumb shape and blood in urine exists. Reduction of bilirubin results in by products that are colorless known as urobilinogen. Urobilinogen is formed as a result of action of intestinal bacteria on bilirubin. This bacterial action converts bilirubin into urobilinogen in the duodenum. Thumb shape is continuously varying trait. It may straight or may be bend to some angle towards the back depending upon the alleles present on chromosomes. From results we can conclude that people with straight thumb may have chances of positive results for urobilinogen. From results we can conclude that people with straight thumb may have chances of positive results for urobilinogen. The only cause of ketones in urine is the deficiency of ATP inside the body, as the result of which body is breaking ketones in order to get energy. If there is glucose in urine within normal range but along this urine contains elevated amount of ketones it means that something is happening that is quite wrong and dangerous. Elevated level of ketones in urine range from 1.6-3.0mmol/liter that is the indication of dangerous risk of diabetes ketoacidosis, in this case you should immediately consult to your doctor. Thumb that is bent in the backward direction is called hitchhikers thumb. Bending of thumb in backward direction does not have any negative impact on the thumb work. No relation between thumb shape and ketones in urine exists. Having nitrites in urine indicates bacterial infection of urinary track. Bacteria contains specific enzyme that is capable to convert nitrites into nitrates that results nitrites in urine. So nitrite in urine is an indication of urinary tract infection that is known as UII. If there is no bacterial infection of bladder, kidney and urinary track than urine contains only nitrates, that is normal but if there is bacterial infection than nitrates are converted into nitrites and urinalysis report will be positive. Thumb shape does not have any impact on the working of thumb. No relation was found from the data that shows that thumb shape is related with the urine nitrites level. Leukocytes are the white blood cells. They are responsible to fight against foreign agents. Their action inside the body indicates that there must be any foreign agent inside the body against which leukocytes are in action. These cells are present at different locations e.g. spleen, bone marrow and other different locations. The infection starts in the lower urinary track at last reaches to kidney, often caused when bacteria from whole body reach to kidney through the blood stream. The chances of this infection are more in women as compare to men. About 60-70% chances are high in women. There is myth about thumb shape ,that only two type of thumb shape exist , one is straight thumb and the other one is curved thumb also known as hitchhikers thumb (H). This character is controlled by two allele of some gene. These alleles are “S” and “s”. If a person had straight thumb we can predict that he will shows positive test for the leukocytes in the urine. Normal urine PH range is 6-7.4. This slightly acidic PH of urine is maintained by the reabsorption of Na+ and excretion of H and NH3. If there is excess of reabsorption of sodium the PH of urine becomes more acidic and if there is more excretion of bicarbonate and bi-carbonic acid, then urine PH increases because due to excretion bicarbonates and bi-carbonic acid condition leads toward alkaline urine. Deviation from normal urine PH may indicates presence of kidney disease or respiratory problem. Some doctor also tests blood urine to examine the side effect of drugs because some drugs make the urine acidic. Limited work is done regarding the thumb shape. Glass and Kittler are two scientists who had described the genetics behind the thumb shape in the year of 1953. Thumb bend greater than 50 C or equal to 50 C due to bending of distal joint of thumb. There is no relation of thumb shape with urine pH. The renal glycosuria is term used for glucose level of urine. Due to diabetes blood glucose level increases that have negative impact on the kidney. So due to diabetes the kidney becomes damaged result in glucose leakage from blood to the urine. The carbohydrate you eat converted in glucose, and glucose is the form of energy that the body can use but when its amount exceeds the normal range it causes serious problems e.g. damages the kidney and results in glucose in urine Thumb shape is the continually changing variable. Shape of the thumb depends upon the combination of allele. Maximum subjects rather having straight thumb or bend thumb showed absence of glucose in urine. While not even a single subject with straight thumb had shown positive result for the glucose in urine while subjects with bend thumb had shown glucose in urine. So we can say that no relation between thumb shape and glucose in urine.

DOI: http://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2021.4402


Research Article

“Ihyo ulumi-din” as a New Sufi Moral Idea of Islam, Shari'at Belief Doctrine, A System Based on the Hallmarks of Imam Ghazzali Doctrine

Muzaffarov Firuz Davronovich

Page No. 28-35

 Abstract: Indeed, the work of Imam Ghazali "Ihyai ulum ad - diyn" was not a religious-irfanistic treatise-work written according to so much, but a new system based on the moral – idea, signs of a new mysticism –the complete new system of Islamic, Shari'ah, word – based doctrines and practices-was the toji of the teaching of Ghazzali. It was he who composed and created not only a religious-Islamic or secular morality, but also a fundamentally renewing, reforming theoretical-methodological semblance of Irfan itself.

DOI: http://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2021.4403


Research Article

Pugos Nutrition for Protection of Malnutrition among Children

Govind Shukla, Dipashree Yajnick, Akanksha Sonal Khess, Sandeep kunche & C.J. Sampath Kumar

Page No. 36-52

 Abstract: Malnutrition in early childhood is linked to deficits in the cognitive development of children. Stunting in children delays school enrolment and is found to be associated with grade repetition and a higher dropout in primary school children. Children who suffered from early malnutrition were also found to have greater behavioural problems. Deficiency of micronutrients such as iron, iodine and zinc is associated with a lower attention span, poor memory, mental retardation and poor school achievement. Continuous low nutritional intake combined with poor access to healthcare is likely to impact on children’s psychological development in terms of attentiveness, emotional expression, motivation, learning ability and school performance. Nutrition is interconnected with the environment, psychological health, health and education. Considering these issues separately results in an incomplete understanding of poverty and a reduced ability to ameliorate problems. Malnutrition must be considered alongside other factors in childhood development. Psychosocial stimulation received by the children seems to make a significant contribution in alleviating the effects of malnutrition. Several studies show that nutritional supplementation when combined with stimulation has substantial benefits for cognitive development. Children who experience under nutrition are also likely to grow up in an under-stimulated social and psychological environment and it is the complex interaction between these factors that causes cognitive deficits. Since it is difficult to unravel the complexity of the mechanisms and sift out the effect of psycho-social stimulation, it is difficult to establish the existence of a causal relationship between under-nutrition alone and cognitive development of children. The present Article Reviews the role of Malnutrition among children in India & its impact on their cognitive development.

DOI: http://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2021.4404


Research Article

The Sky Gets Dark Slowly in View of the Emergence of “The Super Omicron Variant”

Raghavendra Rao M.V., Mubasheer Ali, Yogendra Kumar Verma, Dilip Mathai, Aruna Kumari Badam, Mahendra Kumar Verma & Vijay Kumar Chennamchetty

Page No. 53-59

 Abstract: The new Omicron variant of SARS-cov-2 speeding around the world may bring another wave of chaos. It is like walking on a tight rope. The earth is brimming with viruses. The lungs are the paramount respiratory organs. Besides COVID-19, Omicron variant, pollution is another uninvited guest. People are aggrieved by the recurrence of pollution every year. Delhi and most of the cities expressed air emergency. Nothing seems to change. Not a soul is taken care of. The lungs are the organs most affected by COVID‐19. Virus-infected patients are suffering from air hunger. COVID-19 and its variants are the lung annihilate viruses that traumatically lead to lung failure. COVID 19 pandemic sweeps across the globe, Co-infection with respiratory viruses and SARS-CoV-2 and the mutant variants Omicron, raising danger bells around the world. Omicron is an exciting outstanding pandemic co-infected with respiratory viruses, demands crucial public health Intervention.

DOI: http://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2021.4405


Research Article

Examining the Preparedness of Water Program Graduates in Egypt: Industries Perspective

Mohammad Al Mestiraihi, Kurt Becker, Ryan Dupont & David K. Stevens

Page No. 60-74

 Abstract: Egypt's ability to fulfill present and forecast water demands must be improved urgently. The Nile River feeds Egypt's industrial and agricultural sectors with 55.5 cubic kilometers of fresh water every year and drinking water for the inhabitants. It provides 95 percent of the country's accessible water, 85 percent of it used for agricultural purposes. Most Egyptian water program graduates lack the necessary skills to meet Egypt's present and future water needs despite this urgent necessity. To adequately serve the stakeholders of the water industry in Egypt, water programs must evolve. Universities should look not only at what is being taught but also at how it is being taught. To address this, and as part of the United States Agency for International Development funded “Center of Excellence in Water,” the most demanded skills required by industry were solicited so that curriculum revisions and delivery methods can be implemented to prepare students with these necessary skills. This paper presents the results of a survey to solicit non-academic professionals’ expectations for water graduates in Egypt. Data were collected from 48 water professionals and resource management specialists. To prepare a water graduate valued by industry, the water curriculum should be modified to deliver the skills necessary to meet the demands of the Egyptian water sector. The survey results may have applications for water science and engineering worldwide.

DOI: http://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2021.4406


Research Article

Evaluation of Fungicides for Management of Brown Leaf Spot Disease of Rice

Vinod Chouhan, Ashwani Kumar & Ravinder Singh

Page No. 75-79

 Abstract: Eight fungicides were evaluated against Bipolaris oryzae under in vitro conditions, out of which five superior fungicides were tested in field against brown spot of rice under direct seeded conditions. Out of eight fungicides, three fungicides viz., propiconazole, pyraclostrobin + epoxyconazole and tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin inhibited the myceilial growth upto 100 per cent at 0.75ppm concentration. However, under field conditions, foliar spray of propiconazole @ 0.1% was found most effective in controlling the disease upto 63.24 per cent followed by pyraclostrobin + epoxyconazole (50.07%).

DOI: http://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2021.4407


Research Article

Application of Sensitized Silver Nanoparticles on Pretreated Polyester and Silk Fabrics with Eco-friendly Mixed Gas Plasma

S.F. Ibrahim, D.M. Essa, Khaled Elnagar, Ahmed M. Abdel-Razik, Adel A.-H Abdel-ahman & Mohamed Saudi

Page No. 80-103

 Abstract: This article studies the effect of surface modification of polyester (PET) and silk fabrics by exposing to cold plasma discharge. The cold plasma discharge was proceeded using oxygen/Argon mixed gas as a working gas and different plasma device parameters have been studied such as: different time, different current and different hydrostatic pressure. Treated fabrics are characterized by the measurements and evaluation of mechanical properties, air permeability, Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and the changes in surface morphological of pretreated fabrics were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX)). Then the exposed plasma fabrics at optimum conditions were modified with prepared nano-silver. The antibacterial activity for treated fabrics against gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aurous) and gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) were examined. Also the ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) values increase for both exposed fabrics but the increase is not significant in silk fabrics while antibacterial properties were highly improved by the treatment of fabric. As an applied part for the efficiency of the plasma and nano-treatment, oxygen and oxygen/argon mixed gas plasma and/or nano-silver treated silk samples were separately dyed with Natural Red Lac Dye. Finally, as a metrological part, the uncertainty budget of tensile strength measurement of polyester samples was calculated and analyzed with a well verified traceability via applying all the measurements which are traceable to SI units.

DOI: http://doi.org/10.46431/MEJAST.2021.4408


Research Article

A Comparative Study between Mental Health, Personality and Job Satisfaction Among Government and Private University Teachers

Ruchi Sharma & Dr. Sarika Mohta

Page No. 104-109

 Abstract: The present study was designed to investigate the differences in mental health, personality and job satisfaction among government and private university teachers. To assess mental health, mental health inventory developed by Jagdish and Srivastava was administered on the sample of 100 government and private universities teachers. Using randomized sampling total 100 government and private universities teachers were taken from Haryana State. The Big Five Inventory (BFI) by John & Srivastava (1999) and “Teachers Job Satisfaction Scale” by Yudhvirender Mudgil, Prof I. S Muhar, and Prabha Bhatia (1991) was administered on the same selected sample. t- test was applied to understand the significant impact of these three variables. The result of the study indicated that government university teachers are more satisfied as compare to private university.

DOI: Under Assignment