Abstract: Bacterial leaf spot is a destructive disease in Rajasthan caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria (Doidge) Dye. A field and market survey was conducted for the study of incidence and location. Dry seed examination of 103 seed samples of chilli (Capsicum spp.) belonging to 16 districts of Rajasthan that revealed a 10–100% incidence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria (XAV) on Tween-80 medium. Two naturally infected seed samples of chilli carrying a 100% incidence of XAV were selected and categorized into asymptomatic (06.25–94.25%), moderately discolored (01.75–42%), and heavily discolored (01.25–27.75%) seeds. The heavily discolored seeds showed shriveled, water-soaked symptoms on their surface, and on bisecting such types of infected seeds, the embryo and endosperm showed necrosis and browning. The pathogen was found confined to the outer seed coat layer, particularly at the ramnent of funiculus in a few asymptomatic seeds. In moderately discolored seeds, the pathogen was found in the seed coat and the space in between the seed coat and the endosperm. It colonized all the seed components, including embryo and endosperm, in heavily discolored seeds. The pathogen caused necrosis, the formation of lytic cavities, a reduction in cell contents, and aggregation of the bacterial cells. The pathogen was found to be extra-as well as intra-embryonic.
Nguyen Dinh Trung PhD, Nguyen Thu Thuy PhD, Ly Lan Yen PhD & Nguyen Trong Diep LLD
Page No. 13-21
Abstract: After many years of establishment, the construction of CCN (industrial clusters) in Hanoi city has made contributions to infrastructures for economic. The city attaches great importance to investment and planning. The city soon has a plan, orientation, plan and determination to rapidly develop the industry in order to transform the economic structure towards industrialization and modernization. The city has identified industrial development and industrial infrastructure development as an important task in the strategy and plan for socio-economic development, industrial development as well as rural development. The planning and construction of industrial zones has created excitement and confidence of production households and businesses in Hanoi's economic development policy. The biggest difficulty is that the production ground is gradually solved with the active support of local authorities. Production households have actively invested in developing industries and expanding production scale.
Maung Maung Mya, Myat Phone Kyaw, Myat Thu Soe, Pye Lin Aung, Than Tun, Nwet Nwet Aye, Ye Kyaw Thu, Swen Htat Aung, Phone Myint Lwin, Aung Kyaw Kyaw & Kyaw Kyaw Linn
Page No. 22-41
Abstract: Nanyin village is a malaria endemic area consisting of Bunmouk Township Sagaing Region in Myanmar. Ohnpinkone and Bwedarkone wards were chosen for measuring vector bionomics, potential vectors, susceptibility and bio-efficacy of long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) (due to high prevalence of P. falciparum) in both wards from December 2019 to October 2020. A total of 3236 and 3019 Anopheles mosquitoes consist of 12 species were collected from both Ohnpinkone and Bwedarkone wards. Anopheles barbirostris was found highest number (1088 and 820) followed by An. philippinensis (267 and 605) in both areas. Higher number of Anopheles mosquitoes were collected by Cattle bait catching method followed by Indoor Light traps method. The highest was collected in October in Ohnpinkone and September in Bwedarkone. In Ohnpinkone, the highest was collected in April by outdoor and August in indoor light trap and March by outdoor and June by indoor light traps in Bwedarkone. Higher number of main vectors of An. minimus and An. dirus were collected in Ohnpinkone than Bwedarkone and highest number of An. minimus was collected by cattle bait (77) followed by indoor light method (72) in Ohnpinkone. Only 11and 3 An. dirus were collected, of this 9 and 1 number were collected by indoor light traps method from both wards. One An. minimus from Ohnpinkone was found sporozoite positive (0.47%). Main vector An. minimus was collected highest in April in Ohnpinkone and June in Bwedarkone. Susceptibility status of primary and secondary vectors were found susceptible to Pyrethroid insecticides. Bio-efficacy of all tested LLINs nets were found lower efficacy 20% and 63.33% in both wards. Main vector of An. minimus was collected year round in large number in both areas as well as sporozoite positive and An. dirus was available in both areas. Therefore, both areas are highly malaria risk areas and need to proper treatment and control measure using RIS and supply new LLINs nets or retreatment with deltamethrin to old nets according to WHO guideline to ovoid malaria transmission.
Abstract: The main objective of this current study was to determine the alliance of the nature of the driving lovers. The presence of blood in the urine is called Hematuria. It may be due to the infection of the kidney and bladder. The nature of the drivers is unique as compared to others. The nature put the element of an excitement in such type of people. It was concluded from this prompt study that this prompt study that there is no considerable alliance with the nature of the driving lovers and blood in urine.
Mehwish Arshad, Adeeba Shahid, Syed Bilal Hussain, Muhammad Imran Qadir
Page No. 45-47
Abstract: People having acrophobia show different responses when reaches to some height and can release some chemicals due to which blood in urine can be found. Affiliation of erythrocytes in urine with acrophobia is the particular objective of this study. The existence of erythrocytes in the urine is known as haematuria. It can be non-harmful for the human body or it can affect the urinary system. Fear of height is a term used for acrophobia. Fear from tall building and from steep slopes are the various things that cause fear. Acrophobia is instinct in animals and humans. Total 100 candidates were convoluted in this project. They were students of Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan. They were about 18-22 years old. Urine test of every student was performed to check the level of erythrocytes present in the urine. Then blood in urine was correlated with height phobia. It is inferred from the results that height phobia has affiliation with blood in urine.
Abstract: Exam anxiety and performance on examinations are the focus of this research among school pupils. His study will use a quantitative approach to research, and the questions that will be asked about it will be phrased in a general way. In order to carry out this study, we will make use of a method known as systematic random sampling, and the data will be gathered through the use of questionnaires. The respondents consist of a total of five hundred young people currently enrolled in schools. Information collected for this study have analysed using SPSS, a statistical programme designed specifically for social science research.
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Asma Rasheed & Syed Bilal Hussain
Page No. 53-56
Abstract: A survey was conducted to provide awareness about sickle cell anemia, reasons and its effect on health. A research was done to provide awareness about sickle cell anemia. Total 80 students of Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan Girls hostel Khadija hall were involved in that study in which they were asked about sickle cell anemia disease type and its diagnose and how it can be controlled either by surgery or medicines or no need of its treatment and how it spreads and family friends history of this disease A survey was done to conduct information about sickle cell anemia disease type it’s diagnose, family history, its prevention and its control by medicines.MS word was used for statistical analysis. Present study estimated that majority of students are aware of the fact that it is a fungal disease rather than viral the percentage of students who said that it is a genetically transmitted are 41.4% and it is not an inherited disease. 50% of students are affected by this disease.
Bushra Rashid, Muhammad Ishfaq, Rida Maqbool, Waqas, Dr. Muhammad Babar & Muhammad Imran Qadir
Page No. 57-69
Abstract: In the developing countries, Immuno Chromatographic Techniques (ICT) are used instead of ELISA which may give false positive and false negative results. But ELISA technique has more than 99% accuracy, sensitivity and specificity regarding the diagnosis of Hepatitis C Virus. A cross sectional study on 200 patients is the part of this study to check sensitivity of ELISA for HCV as well as to compare the sensitivity of ELISA and ICT method for HCV. For investigation of Pakistani patients using these techniques, 50 samples of control group (25 samples of negative control and 25 of positive control) and 150 samples of patients (suspected for HCV) were collected. Their HCV tests were first performed by using ICT kits. Then these samples were tested for anti-HCV antibody through ELISA by fully automated Instrument and their cut off values was determined. Results obtained by ELISA were compared by the results obtained by testing through ICT method. Results revealed that twenty-five patients suffering from hepatitis C were detected by both ELISA and ICT (positive control). Similarly, ELISA and ICT showed the negative results for all twenty-five negative control patients. Both ELISA and ICT showed the same results regarding detection of hepatitis C except two patients in experimental group. ICT showed positive result of a patient who was healthy and also confirmed negative by ELISA technique. Also this patient did not show any sign and symptom of hepatitis C. Further, ICT showed negative result of hepatitis C infected patient who has the sign and symptoms of hepatitis C and also ELISA showed positive result regarding detection of hepatitis C. It can be concluded from this experiment that both ELISA and ICT can be used for the detection of hepatitis C. However, the sensitivity of ELISA is higher as compared to ICT. Therefore, it can be recommended that ELISA is more appropriate method for the detection of hepatitis C.